Development of math efficacy scale for junior high school student in Indonesia


  • Kemas Rahmat Mubarrak Program Studi Psikologi, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
  • Helli Ihsan Department of Psychology, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, West Java
  • Diah Zaleha Wyandini Department of Psychology, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, West Java



factor analysis, math efficacy, mixed-method, psychometrics, scale development


Indonesian students are indicated to have a low math efficacy. Currently, no psychology scale has been created to measure the math efficacy of Indonesian students, especially for junior high school level students. This study aims to develop a math efficacy scale for junior high school level students or equivalent based on Indonesian students’ characteristics. The study used an exploratory sequential design with mixed methods. The results of qualitative analysis through focused group interviews on two small groups of eight students show that seven major themes were related to mathematics efficacy. Qualitative analysis as the basis for a scale development consisting of 33 items and is administered to 478 participants. The results of the quantitative analysis through validity test with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) shows that four dimensions appeared with total variance explained reaching 60.4%. The model was re-tested for compatibility with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and obtained index values of p < 0.001 (χ2), 0.047 (SRMR), 0.907 (TLI), 0.918 (CFI), and 0.064 (RMSEA). The four dimensions have met the standard of a fit index with 23 items remaining. The validity test was also supported by Pearson's Product Moment correlation of 0.795 for convergent validity test with Math Attitude Scale (MAS) and divergent validity test of -0.331 with Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Anxiety Questionnaire (MSEAQ). The scale's reliability was very good, with Cronbach's alpha value of 0.918.


Arguello, J., & Crescenzi, A. (2019). Using principal component analysis to better understand behavioral measures and their effects. ICTIR 2019 - Proceedings of the 2019 ACM SIGIR International Conference on Theory of Information Retrieval, 177–184.

Azwar, S. (2019b). Penyusunan Skala Psikologi (2nd ed.). Pustaka Pelajar.

Bandura, A. (2012). On the Functional Properties of Perceived Self-Efficacy Revisited. Journal of Management, 38(1), 9–44.

Betz, E., & Hackett, G. (1983). The Relationship of Mathematics Self-Efficacy Expectations to the Selection of Science-Based College Majors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 23(3), 329–345.

Boateng, G. O., Neilands, T. B., Frongillo, E. A., Melgar-Quiñonez, H. R., & Young, S. L. (2018). Best Practices for Developing and Validating Scales for Health, Social, and Behavioral Research: A Primer. Frontiers in Public Health, 6.

Bonne, L., & Lawes, E. (2016). Assessing students ’ maths self- efficacy and achievement. Research Information for Teachers (Set), 2(October), 60–63.

Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research (Second). The Guilford Press.

Coaley, K. (2010). An Introduction to Psychological Assessment and Psychometrics. SAGE Publications.

Gopnik, A., Sobel, D. M., Schulz, L. E., & Glymour, C. (2001). Causal Learning Mechanisms in Very Young Children : Two- , Three- , and Four-Year-Olds Infer Causal Relations From Patterns of Variation and Covariation. Developmental Psychology, 37(5), 620–629.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis. In Pearson Education Limited (7th ed.). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Harris, B., & Petersen, D. (2017). Developing Math Skills in Early Childhood. In Mathematica Policy Research (Issue August).

Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2013). Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues. In Wadsworth (8th ed.).

Kranzler, J. H., & Pajares, F. (1997). An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale — Revised ( MSES-R ). 29(4), 215–228.

Li, C. H. (2016). Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data: Comparing robust maximum likelihood and diagonally weighted least squares. Behavior Research Methods, 48(3), 936–949.

May, D. K. (2009). Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Anxiety Questionnaire. University of Georgia.

Pampaka, M., & Williams, J. (2010). Measuring Mathematics Self Efficacy of students at the beginning of their Higher Education Studies. Proceedings of the British Congress for Mathematics Education, January, 159–166.

Raubenheimer, J. (2004) An Item Selection Procedure to Maximise Scale Reliability and Validity. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 30, 59-64.

Schleicher, A. (2019). PISA 2018 Insights and Interpretations.

Somawati, S. (2018). Peran Efikasi Diri (Self Efficacy) terhadap Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Matematika. Jurnal Konseling Dan Pendidikan, 6(1), 39–45.

Sukoco, H., Wismono, A., & Rusmilah. (2018). Skala Mathematics Self-Efficacy Untuk Jenjang SMA (Mathematics Self-Efficacy For Senior High School/MSESc). Prosiding Seminar Nasional Etnomatnesia, 752–760.

Thien, L. M., Darmawan, I. G. N., & Ong, M. Y. (2015). Affective characteristics and mathematics performance in Indonesia , Malaysia , and Thailand : what can PISA 2012 data tell us ? Large-Scale Assessments in Education, 3(3), 1–16.

Zakariya, Y. F., Goodchild, S., Bjørkestøl, K., & Nilsen, H. K. (2019). Calculus Self-Efficacy Inventory : Its Development and Relationship with Approaches to learning. Education Sciences, 9(3), 70.

Zhou, Y. (2019). Measurement : Interdisciplinary Research and A Mixed Methods Model of Scale Development and Validation Analysis. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 17(1), 38–47.




How to Cite

Mubarrak, K. R., Ihsan, H., & Wyandini, D. Z. (2022). Development of math efficacy scale for junior high school student in Indonesia. Jurnal Elemen, 8(1), 276–289.




Similar Articles

<< < 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.