The Contribution of Exposure Frequency to English to Speaking and Writing Performance of EFL Learners at Junior High School in Indonesia

Hajriana Arfah, Ahmad Zam Zam


This study was aimed at describing the contribution of exposure frequency to English (EFE) to speaking and writing English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in bilingual class setting of a state junior high school in East Lombok, which has been implementing bilingual principles (English-Indonesia) of Mathematics and Natural Science. This research is ex-post facto with correlation design. The samples were systematically selected by choosing even number of the student lists, which involved forty-six of ninety-three students of eight grade in academic year 2011/2012. Data were analyzed with regression. The calculation was done at 5% significant level.

This research discovered that (1) there is a significant correlation between exposure frequency to English language and speaking performance of the students in bilingual classes by R value of  .555 with probability of  .00; (2) there is significant correlation between exposure frequency to English and writing performance by R value of  .78 with probability of  .00; (3) the EFE significantly contribute to writing performance with R Square value of  .609 (60.9%); and (4) it also contribute.309 (30.9%) the students’ speaking performance. 

Full Text:



Ajileye, S. S.. 2009. The Effect of Exposure to English Language Activities Outside the classroom on written English: A Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Ilorin. Downloaded on 25th Oct. 2009 from

Artini, Putu, Luh. 2010. Teaching Mathematics and Science Using English as a Medium of Instruction: From Theory to Practice. Singaraja: The paper was presented in a one day-Seminar and Workshop for Mathematics and Science Lecturers.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 1992. Manajemen Penelitian. Yogyakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Asy’ari, Mutho, Kharis. 2012. Analisis Berstandar Internasional. Downloaded on 5th Nopember 2012 from

Anwar, Zainul. 2000. Interactional Features as Implemented in Teaching English at Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 4 Jakarta. Thesis. Bandung. Unpublished.

Allyn & Bacon. 1998. Bilingual Education. Boston.

Brown, H.D. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. 4th ed. Addison Wesley Longman: A Pearson Education Company.

______. 2001. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. 2nd ed. Addison Wesley Longman: A Pearson Education Company.

______. 2004. Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices. White Plain: Pearson Education.

Bruning, James, L. 1997. Computational Handbook of Statistics. United States of America: Foreman and Company.

Bungin, Burhan. 2005. Metodologi Penelitian Kuantitatif. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.

Buck, G. 2001. Assessing Listening. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Clark, H. Herbert & Clark, V. Eve. 1977. Psychology and Language: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. United States of American: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Dantes. 2007. Metodologi Penelitian untuk Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora. Singaraja. Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha. Unpublished.

Dawes, Lyn. 2008. The Essential Speaking and Listening. New York: Routledge

Dulay, H., Burt, M., & Krashen, S. 1982. Language Two. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. 1986. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Genesee, Fred. 1999. Program Alternatives for Linguistically Diverse Students. Online Journal downloaded in September 2012 from

Hadley, A.O. 2001. Teaching Language in Context. 3rd ed. London: Thomson Learning.

Harmer, J., 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching. 3rd ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Hoffmann, Charlotte. 1991. An Introduction to Bilingualism. England: Longman Group

Hughes, A. 2003. Testing for Languages Teachers. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.

Jazadi, Iwan. (2008). The Politics of Curriculum: An Interpretive Study of English Language Teaching and Learning at High Schools in Indonesia. Sumbawa Besar: Paracendekia NW Press.

Joyce, B. & Weil, M. 2000. Model of Teaching. Needham Heights: A Person Education Company.

Krashen, S. 2010. Why Bilingual Education. Downloaded, April 25th, 2010 from

________. 2010. Krashen’s Comprehension Hypothesis Model of L2 Learning. Downloaded, April 25th, 2010 from

________. 1999. Principle and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.

________. 1982. How Language is Learned. Oxford: Pergamon.

Klinger, K.J., Vaughn, S., & Boardma, A. 2007. Teaching Reading Comprehension to Students with Learning Difficulties. New York: Guilford Press.

Koyan, Wayan, I. 2007. Statistika Terapan: Teknik Analisis Data Kuantitatif. Singraja: Unpublished.

Littlewood, W. 1981. Communicative Language Teaching; An introduction. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Nunan, D., 1988. Learner-Centered Curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.

Nurgiyantoro, B. 2001. Penilaian Dalam Pengajaran Bahasa dan Sastra. 3rd edition. Yogyakarta: BPFE.

Mauranen, Ann. 2006. Spoken Discourse, Academic and Global English: A Carpus Perspective in Spoken English, TESOL, and Applied Linguistics: Challenges for the Theory and Practice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Muijs, Daniel. 2004. Doing Quantitative Research in Education. 1st Edition. London: SAGE Publications Ltd

Paradis, Johnane. 2012. Bilingual Children’s Acquisition of English Verb Morphology: Effects of LanguageExposure, Structure Complexity, and Task Type. Online Journal of Research in Language Studies. Downloaded in October 2012 from › ... › Language Learning › Vol 60 Issue

Purnajaya, I Nyoman. 2008. Program Implementation Evaluation of SMA Negeri 1 Denpasar Quality Improvement Program to International Level School. Thesis: Program Study of Research and Education Evaluation, Magister Program, Pendidikan Ganesha University Singaraja. Unpublished.

Rennie, Jeanne. 1993. ESL and Bilingual Program Models. Downloaded from online journal ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics in September 2012.

Richards, J.C. & Renandya, willy A. 2002. Methodology of Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. United Kingdom: The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.

Stern, H.H., 1983. Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press .

Tuckman, W.B. 1988. Conducting Educational Research. United States of America: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Wiersma, W. 1986. Research method in education: an introduction. 4th edition. United States of America: Allyn and Bacon.

Williams, M., 1999. Learning Teaching: a Social Constructivist Approach-Theory and Practice or Theory with Practice? page 11-20 in Theory in Language Teacher Education by Lomax, H.T., & McGrath, I., Harlow: Pearson education


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 53 times
PDF - 35 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.