A Deep Scanning on Mild Mental Retardation Individual’s Language Acquisition and Development

Rachmi Retno Nursanti, Widyastuti Purbani


This research aims to investigate the language acquisition and development of a child with mild mental retardation in the 14th years old. The language acquisition is developed by appropriate treatment of caregivers including parent, family members, teachers, friends, and neighbors. Parent is the main caregiver that contributes language development of the child with mild mental retardation. The research uses qualitative approach in a case study as a research design. The results of this research show that the child got speech therapy in the 3rd years old and the parent provided facilities to develop language; such as story books, stationary, and gadgets. The child acquired four languages; Bahasa Indonesia, Javanese language, English language, and Arabic language since she went to school. Each language has different role in the child’s daily activities and communication. The schooling system contributed the child’s achievement academically and non-academically because she was studying at inclusive school with special teachers from psychology education background. In addition, neighborhood environment supported the child’s confidence to socialization.  Thus, this research is supposed to be a reference to the following researchers to discover more treatments to mentally retarded students in acquiring languages.


language acquisition, language development, mild mental retardation, parenting, psycholinguistic

Full Text:



Alsalem, M. A. (2016). Redefining Literacy : The Realities of Digital Literacy for Students with Disabilities in K-12. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(32), 205–215.

Aslan, A. (2017). Kurikulum Bagi Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus (ABK). Studi Insania, 5(2), 105–119.

Brent, M., Gough, F., & Robinson, S. (2001). One in Eleven: Practical Strategies for Teaching Adolescents with a Language Learning Disablity (First). Victoria: Acer Press.

Chomsky, N. (2002). On Nature and Language (A. Belletti & L. Rizzi, eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chomsky, N. (2006). Language and Mind (Third). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clark, E. V. (2009). First Language Acquisition (Second). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Deusen-Scholl, N. Van, & May, S. (2017). Second and Foreign Language Education (Third). Cham: Springer.

Dyson, L. (2010). Unanticipated Effects of Children with Learning Disabilities on Their Families. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33(1), 43–55.

Ellis, R., & Shintani, N. (2014). Exploring Language Pedagogy through Second Language Acquisition Research (R. Carter & G. Cook, eds.). https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203796580

Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2012). The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. New York: Routledge.

Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (2008). Second Language Acquisition: An Introductory Course (Second). https://doi.org/10.2307/416225

Gross, J. (2013). Time to Talk. New York: Routledge: Taylor and Francis Group.

Hanser, G. (2010). Emergent Literacy for Children with Disabilities. OT PRACTICE, 16–20. Retrieved from www.aota.org

Hayes, A., Turnbull, A., & Moran, N. (2018). Universal Design for Learning to Help All Children Read. Washington DC.

He, K. (2019). Semantic Perception Theory: A New Theory on Children’s Language Development. Singapore: Springer.

Hebbeler, K., & Spiker, D. (2016). Supporting Young Children with Disabilities. The Future Children, 26(2), 185–205.

Heward, W. L., Alber-Morgan, S. R., & Konrad, M. (2017). Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education (Eleventh). Ohio: Pearson.

Hoff, E. (2014). Language Development (Fifth). California: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Holmes, M. S. (2014). Intellectual Disability. Victorian Review, 40(1), 9–14.

Johari, M. H. Y. B., & Nazari, Z. A. (2019). Proficiency of Javanese Language in Developing Identity Among Javanese Youth. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Science, 9(1), 1088–1098. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v9-i1/5511

Johnson, W., & Reimers, P. (2010). Patterns in Child Phonology. Edinburgh: Ed.

Johnston, J. (2010). Factors that Influence Language Development. In Language Development and Literacy (pp. 1–5). Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development.

Joshi, P., & Shukla, S. (2019). Child Development and Education in the Twenty-First Century. Singapore: Springer.

Khuzaefi, K. (2018). Cultural Investment of Javanese ‘Krama’ Language in Islamic Elementary Schools. Mudarissa: Jurnal Kajian Pendidikan Islam, 10(2), 148–165. https://doi.org/10.18326/mudarrisa.v10i2.148-165

Kirk, S., Gallagher, J. J., Coleman, M. R., & Anastasiow, N. (2009). Educating Exceptional Children. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Krashen, S. D. (2002). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. In Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century (First Inte). https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59140-723-2.ch007

Krashen, S. D. (2009). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. https://doi.org/10.2307/3586656

Lan, Y., Hsiao, I. Y. T., & Shih, M. (2018). Effective Learning Design of Game-Based 3D Virtual Language Learning Environments for Special Education Students Published by : International Forum of Educational Technology & Society Linked references are available on JSTOR for this article : Effective L. International Forum of Educational Technology & Society, 21(3), 213–227.

Lemons, C. J., Allor, J. H., Otaiba, S. Al, & Lejeune, L. M. (2016). 10 Research-Based Tips for Enhancing Literacy Instruction for Students With Intellectual Disability. Teaching Exceptional Children, 49(1), 18–30.

Mcdiarmid, M. D., & Bagner, D. M. (2005). Parent Child Interaction Therapy for Children with Disruptive Behavior and Developmental Disabilities. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(2), 130–141.

Memisevic, H., & Hadzic, S. (2013). Speech and Language Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development, 24(2), 92–99. https://doi.org/10.5463/DCID.v24i2.214

Mohammadian, A., & Dolatabadi, S. M. (2016). The Effect of Affection on English Language Learning of Children with Intellectual Disability Based on Total Physical Response Method of Language Teaching. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 5(2), 92–103. https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.23/2016.5.2/

Noori, Z. S., & Farvardin, M. T. (2016). The Effect of Using Audio-Visual Aids Versus Pictures on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning of Individual with Mild Intellectual Disability. Special Education-Professional and Scientific Issues, 17(1–2), 16–35. https://doi.org/10.19057/jser.2016.1

Pandudinata, R., Sumarlam, S., & Saddhono, K. (2018). Language Acquisition of Children With Mental Disabilities in Pacitan. Humanus, 17(1), 26. https://doi.org/10.24036/humanus.v17i1.8542

Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 13. Akomodasi yang Layak untuk Peserta Didik Penyandang Disabilitas. , Pub. L. No. 13 (2020).

Permendikbud No. 157. Kurikulum Pendidikan Khusus. , Pub. L. No. 157 (2014).

Pokorn, N. K. (2005). Challenging the Traditional Axioms. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Purbani, W. (2013). Equity in the Classsroom: The System and Improvement of Inclusive Schools in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (A Case Study). US-China Education Review, 3(7), 507–518.

Rast, R. (2008). Foreign Language Input: Initial Processing. Cronwell Press Ltd.

Saldana, J. (2011). Fundamentals of Qualitative Research (J. Saldana, ed.). New Yorl: Oxford University Press.

Santrock, J. W. (2018). Educational Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill Education.

Schmidt-Naylor, A. C., Saunders, K. J., & Brady, N. C. (2017). Developing the Alphabetic Principle to Aid Text-Based Augmentative and Alternative Communication Use by Adults with Low Speech Intelligibility and Intellectual Disabilities. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 26(May), 397–412.

Shilc, M., Shmidt, M., & Koshir, S. (2017). Pragmatic Abilities of Pupils with Mild Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation, 18(1–2), 55–73. https://doi.org/10.19057/jser.2017.19

Skinner, B. F. (2014). Verbal Behavior. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Sudartinah, T. (2008). The Role of Parentese in First Language Acquisition: A Psycholinguistic Study. Journal of English and Education, 2(1), 54–66. https://doi.org/10.20885/jee.vol2.iss1.art6

Wahyudi, W., & Kristiawati, R. (2016). Gambaran Sekolah Inklusif di Indonesia: Tinjauan Sekolah Menengah Pertama. Retrieved from http://publikasi.data.kemdikbud.go.id/uploadDir/isi_14D0F106-F4EE-486B-A74F-84A191B4AD25_.pdf

Weis, R. (2018). Introduction to Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology (3rd ed.). California: SAGE Publication, Inc.

Yin, R. K. (2018). Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods (Sixth). Singapore: SAGE Publication, Inc.

Yule, G. (2010). The Study of Language (Fourth). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Yusuf, M., & Suardi Wekke, I. (2015). Active Learning on Teaching Arabic for Special Purpose in Indonesian Pesantren. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 137–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.245

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29408/veles.v6i2.5223


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Rachmi Retno Nursanti, Widyastuti Purbani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

VELES' Visitors


Creative Commons License
VELES Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Contact Us: VELES (Voices of English Language Education Society);

Address: Faculty of Language, Arts, and Humanities, Universitas Hamzanwadi

Jln. TGKH. M. Zainuddin Abdul Majid No. 132 Pancor, Selong-Lombok Timur, NTB, Indonesia. e-mail: velesjournal@gmail.com