Think-Aloud Protocol Analysis: Revealing The Student's Problem in Reading Comprehension

Ni Wayan Krismayani, Sebastianus Menggo


Readers should integrate information from the text they are reading with their existing knowledge since reading is a process of building meaning and language expansion. Without improving reading abilities, it is hard to succeed in the teaching and learning process and develop a more thorough understanding, a perceptive attitude, and creative thinking to reach reading achievement. The purpose of this study is to outline the issues that cropped up while reading. In this descriptive-qualitative study, the researchers identified, analyzed, and characterized the readers' mental processes for reading comprehension. Thirty students were taken randomly from three classes enrolled in the Intermediate Reading Course of the English Language Education Study Program, Universitas Mahasaraswati Denpasar. The finding showed that the students encountered four main problems: Inability to understand word, phrase, and sentence processing (78.1%); having weak syntactic parsing (83.3%), less inference (81.7), and inadequate self-monitoring (84%). The reading lecturers are suggested to determine the student’s reading comprehension needs and employ relevant tips in the reading course, such as creating good connections, making predictions, visualizing, making inferences, self-questioning, and summarizing. The results are expected to give a useful contribution to strengthen reading theory and the lecturers in analyzing students’ reading comprehension problems.


Think-aloud protocol, reading comprehension, English language teaching

Full Text:



Abu-Rabia, S. (2021). Syntax functions and reading comprehension in Arabic orthography. Reading Psychology, 42(7), 700–729.

Ahmadi, M. A., Ismail, H. N., & Abdullah, M. K. K. (2013). The importance of metacognitive reading strategy awareness in reading comprehension. English Language Teaching, 6(10), 235–244.

Alzu’bi, M. (2019). The impact of text length on EFL students’ reading comprehension. Folio, 19(1), 69–75.

Bahri, S. B., Nasir, C., & Rohiman, C. L. N. (2018). Using the think aloud method in teaching reading comprehension. Studies in English Language and Education, 5(1), 148–158.

Balashov, E., Pasichnyk, I., & Kalamazh, R. (2018). Self-monitoring and self-regulation of University students in text comprehension. Psycholinguistics, 24(1), 47–62.

Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Longman Group.

Cain, K., Lemmon, K., & Oakhill, J. (2004). Individual differences in the inference of word meanings from context: The influence of reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, and memory capacity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(4), 671–681.

Cain, K., & Oakhill, J. (2014). Reading comprehension and vocabulary: Is vocabulary more important for some aspects of comprehension? L’Année Psychologique, 114, 647–662.

Charters, E. (2003). The use of think-aloud methods in qualitative research an introduction to think-aloud Methods. Brock Education: A Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 12(2), 68–82.

Chin, A. S. W., & Ghani, K. A. (2021). The Use of think-aloud in assisting reading comprehension among primary school students. Journal of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development, 7(1), 11–32.

Day, S. B., & Gentner, D. (2007). Nonintentional analogical inference in text comprehension. Memory and Cognition, 35(1), 39–49.

Fromkin, V. A. (2003). Linguistics: An introduction to linguistic theory. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ghahari, S., & Basanjideh, M. (2017). Psycho-Linguistic model of reading strategies awareness in EFL contexts. Reading Psychology, 38(2), 125–153.

Gilakjani, A. P., & Sabouri, N. B. (2016). How can students improve their reading comprehension Skill? Journal of Studies in Education, 6(2), 229–240.

Gottardo, A., Mirza, A., Koh, P. W., Ferreira, A., & Javier, C. (2018). Unpacking listening comprehension: the role of vocabulary, morphological awareness, and syntactic knowledge in reading comprehension. Reading and Writing, 31(8), 1741–1764.

Guo, L. (2018). Modeling the relationship of metacognitive knowledge, L1 reading ability, L2 language proficiency and L2 reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 30(2), 209–231.

Ismail, H., Syahruzah, J. K., & Basuki, B. (2017). Improving the students’ reading skill through translation method. Journal of English Education, 2(2), 124–131.

Joseph, L. M., & Eveleigh, E. L. (2011). A review of the effects of self-monitoring on reading performance of students with disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 45(1), 43–53.

Karizak, A. F., & Khojasteh, L. (2016). The effect of three kinds of reading strategies on EFL learners’ reading comprehension and gender difference using think-aloud protocol. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 5(5), 6–14.

Kim, Y. G. K., & Piper, B. (2019). Cross-language transfer of reading skills: An empirical investigation of bidirectionality and the influence of instructional environments. Reading and Writing, 32(4), 839–871.

Küçükoğlu, H. (2013). Improving reading skills through effective reading strategies. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 709–714.

Maduabuchi, C. H., & Vivian, E. (2016). ICT and the teaching of reading comprehension in English as a second language in secondary schools: Problems and prospects. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 4(3), 18–23.

Maximilian, A. (2020). Translation ability, reading habit, and reading skill in vocational school students in Indonesia : A correlation. Journal of English Teaching and Applied Linguistic, 1(1), 19–27.

Menggo, S., & Darong, H. C. (2022). Blended learning in ESL/EFL class. LLT Journal: A Journal on Language and Language Learning, 25(1), 132–148.

Menggo, S., Suastra, I. M., & Padmadewi, N. N. (2019). Self-recording videos to improve academic English-speaking competence. The Asian EFL Journal, 25(5.2), 133–152.

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge Uiniversity Press.

Patel, M. F., & Jain, M. P. (2008). English language teaching (methods, tools and technique). Sunrise.

Pham, C. T. K. (2017). Reading comprehension and translation performance of English linguistics students of Hung Vuong University: A correlational study. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies, 5(3), 79–85.

Prior, A., Goldina, A., Shany, M., Geva, E., & Katzir, T. (2014). Lexical inference in L2: Predictive roles of vocabulary knowledge and reading skill beyond reading comprehension. Springer of Reading and Writing Journal, 27(8), 1467–1484.

Qanwal, S., & Karim, S. (2014). Identifying correlation between reading strategies instruction and L2 text comprehension. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5(5), 1019–1032.

Rushwan, I. M. H. (2017). The role of translation in developing ESP learners’ reading comprehension akills- a case study of medical students at Najran University-KSA. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 6(3), 243–253.

Safura, S., & Helmanda, C. M. (2020). The analysis of English department students’ ability in mastering reading text of Muhammadiyah Aceh University. Getsempena English Education Journal, 7(1), 170–182.

Sarjan, N., & Mardiana, M. (2017). An analysis on the English teachers strategies in teaching reading comprehension SMP 1 of Wonomulyo. ETERNAL (English, Teaching, Learning, and Reseach Journal), 3(2), 151–160.

Schellings, G. L. M., H.A.M., B., Hout-Woters, V., Veenman, M. V. . J., & Meijer, J. (2013). Assessing metacognitive activities: The in-depth comparison of a task-specific questionnaire with think-aloud protocols. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 963–990.

Syakur, A., Azis, R., & Sukarsih, S. (2020). Developing reading learning model to increase reading skill for animal husbandry students in higher education. Britain International of Linguistics Arts and Education Sciences Journal, 2(1), 484–493.

Syarif, H. (2017). Engaging students in learning English syntax through text analysis. International Conference on English Language and Teaching, 110, 192–198.

Tolhah, M., & Sugirin, S. (2021). Think aloud method: Is it effective in enhancing Indonesian EFL students’ reading comprehension skills? Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics, 6(1), 47–62.

Wang, Y. H. (2016). Reading strategy use and comprehension performance of more successful and less successful readers: A think-aloud study. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 16(5), 1789–1813.

Wibowo, Y. E. W., Syafrizal, S., & Syafryadin, S. (2021). An analysis on English teacher strategies in teaching reading comprehension. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Literacy, 4(1), 20–27.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Ni Wayan Krismayani, Sebastianus Menggo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

VELES' Visitors


Creative Commons License
VELES Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Contact Us: VELES: Voices of English Language Education Society;

Address: Faculty of Language, Arts, and Humanities, Universitas Hamzanwadi

Jln. TGKH. M. Zainuddin Abdul Majid No. 132 Pancor, Selong-Lombok Timur, NTB, Indonesia. e-mail: [email protected]